Csv Arabic Encoding

Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a single-byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows for English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings). If in doubt about which encoding to use, use UTF-8, as it can encode any Unicode character. Statistical Consulting Web Resources. Duh! Encoding is applied only to text content written out with Response. 3- and 4 this is a very good point, I scanned dozens of messages with/without attachments and isolated the problem: it seems that the problem rises whenever there is an in-line image embedded (even if it is the company logo in the in-line attached business card)!!!!! + Arabic Text. csv" files are imported into Excel for Windows silently with a double click. I have exported my document to CSV. It was standardized as part of ISO 10646. Dim ascii As Encoding = Encoding. On the other hand, if you SFDC export as UTF-8 Excel. Merrill with the support of ProPublica, La Nación DATA, Knight-Mozilla OpenNews, The New York Times. You can change the encoding here also, so make sure an encoding that includes the arabic characters is selected. Send CSV, Excel and other spreadsheet attachments. You can specify the restriction using the components filter. That's a whole other story! Good luck to anyone who reads this! Tested on: ArcGIS 10. Unicode ' Convert the string into a byte array. csv(), you might find yourself in trouble:. Is it possible to set the default encoding for Excel (any version, e. In order to correctly read and write text files, you need to understand that those read/write operations always use an implicit character encoding to translate raw bytes - the 1s and 0s - into text. csv" where XXX is the language. I recently migrated user data from a Japanese tenant to a European tenant, and needed to use encoding to preserve Japanese characters. When textscan reads the input, it attempts to match the data to the format specified in formatSpec. Tabula was created by journalists for journalists and anyone else working with data locked away in PDFs. This sequence needs to be represented as a set of bytes (meaning, values from 0 through 255) in memory. Character Description Encoded Byte � NULL (U+0000) 00 START OF HEADING (U+0001). ;Metagenomics has proven to be a powerful tool for exploring the ecology, metabolic profiling, and comparison of complex microbial communities as well as its important applications in the mining of metagenomes for genes encoding novel biocatalysts. No ads, nonsense or garbage, just a UTF8 encoder. frame format returned by `readtext()`, it can construct a corpus directly from a readtext object, preserving all docvars and other meta-data. Excel is not capable to process UTF-8 characters correctly when CSV is opened directly in Excel. Spool files will use whichever encoding is related to the NLS_LANG character set, regardless of the Command Prompt's CHCP setting. 5- Import it into Access. a species list with foreign characters from Collect and you see that the outcome is ?????, Same problem occurs e. Which as we know is the default on windows. for example the word "yes" should be "نعم" in arabic and it does on the form but in csv I got "ظ†ط¹ظ…". Since the Arabic alphabets are stored in Unicode, there are additional We are having difficulties to manipulate the Arabic efforts to transmit the Arabic word from the client to words, especially in the process of saving and the server and vice-versa. For Asian languages Arabic and Vietnamese have ISO and Windows standards. If you open the CSV file Excel has created with a tool like Notepad++, you will see the character encoding is already broken, since cp-1252 does not support all unicode characters. csv) from the Save as type drop-down. help/imprint (Data Protection). The historical search information is exported using a CSV (comma separated value) file format. It works on windows, and it doesn't on linux. Now at the bottom you will see encoding it set to ANSI change it to UTF-8 and save the file as new file and then your done. IBM Cognos CSV Files: The Encoding Mystery April 14, 2011 / 2 Comments / by Susan Ma The ability to export a report to CSV format is one of great out of box capabilities provided by the IBM Cognos suite of tools. OpenText Method. How to Change Encoding in Word. ANSI character set and equivalent Unicode and HTML characters. Unfortunately to do so, I had to install Open Office which lets you select the encoding type when saving an Excel spreadsheet as CSV. Exporting data into various file format - i. It was standardized as part of ISO 10646. Some of these cookies are essential to the operation of the site, while others help to improve your experience by providing insights into how the site is being used. In this guide, we will describe what character encoding and cover a few examples of converting files from one character encoding to another using a command line tool. CSV to XML Converter is used to convert CSV data or file into XML. csv file that uses UTF-8 character encoding. When a text file is saved, the tool that saves it must always use a character encoding (UTF-8 is recommended). For this example the CSV file for the dataset is stored in the "Datasets" folder of the D drive on my Windows computer. tsv is frequently required in our day to day action. the core Python developers) need to provide some clearer guidance on how to handle text processing tasks that trigger exceptions by default in Python 3, but were previously swept under the rug by Python 2's blithe assumption that all files are encoded in "latin-1". notepad to use the csv file. CSV looks like a simple portable format from the outside, but its looks are deceiving. csv but when I did that I got all my arabic text with the wrong encoding and I can not read it. CSV and TXT files with more addresses than this must bepublished as a hosted feature layer. It uses Unicode strings implemented as wchar_t* strings (LPWSTR). Export Mysql to ecxel/csv arabic encoding peterman5 Hello, I want to export a mysql table to excel files and if not to csv, the problem with excel is it gives me data on one line, so I transformed it to csv and it works, the problem is it does not read arabic data. It was created in 1991. What really puzzles me is, that my Windows editors don't recognize the encoding - I'd assume that the UTF-8 encoding is saved in some sort of meta-data?? - Kay Jun 8 '16 at 7:38. If you close the document without re-saving in a more suitable encoding, those characters will be lost. @Followup from my first post: Thank you, i forgot about the ALL_TABLES and ALL_COLUMS ecc. OK, I Understand. CSV and TXT files with more than 4,000 rows must be published as a hosted feature layer. It also demonstrates how to display that data in. The Unicode Standard provides a unique number for every character, no matter what platform, device, application or language. Simple solution to parse a. Import-CSV Change file encoding If your CSV file contains accented characters, typically french words or names, you will get into trouble with Import-CSV. I am using a UNIX OS, where SAS 9. Various Google results lead me to believe that adding a BOM to the data might encourage Excel to parse the data as Unicode data (rather than ASCII or ISO-8895-1). When I open it in text editors Cyrillic symbols are rendered correctly, it seems that the problem is only when I open CSV document in MS Excel. Comma is the field delimiter. To help users navigate the site we have posted a site navigation guide. (For more information see the Encoding sidebar). Go to the Encoding tab. Numerous scripts, such as Arabic and Indic, require additional rules to transform the character sequence in memory to an appropriate sequence of font glyphs for display. Below is the script that someone could write:. In Oracle 9i it's functionality has been extended to include binary reads/write operations. Some cells contain texts with greek letters like "MIP-1β" (the last beta has is unicode 03B2). csv', sep = '\t', encoding = 'utf-8') El pdf a leer se llama inforatge. When we open this csv file in MS-Excel 2013 then its not showing data properly. Hi guys i have problem I need to export datagridview to csv file. UCS-2 LE) Encoding. This means you can open and edit spreadsheets from others, and then save them right from WPS office knowing others will be able open them without any issues. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. To use any other characters sets, you must explicitly specify the encoding to use for loading. Excel is not capable to process UTF-8 characters correctly when CSV is opened directly in Excel. You may also paste your data. In this tutorial, we show you three examples to read, parse and print out the values from a CSV file. Which encoding is 'right' - specified for the format?. ///// // Converts a file from one specified character encoding to another and stores the result in a new file. However, it might be an ISO-8859-1 file which happens to start with the characters . What does the Comma Separated Values (CSV) File mean? A CSV file is a text file which contains some data. Whereas UTF-8 is on linux. This advanced XML editor provides the most intuitive tools for XML editing, authoring, and development. How did you do this? I've edited the "general_csv_encoding" value in corresponding "/config/locales/*. Using: $ python buckwalter2unicode. One easy way to change excel ANSI encoding to UTF-8 is the open the. Then finally, we will look at how to convert several files from any character set (charset) to UTF-8 encoding in Linux. exporting from DB to CSV - encoding issues with arabic characters I’m trying to export from DB content that includes Arabic letters. 0/osp_glossary Common subdirectories: current/osp_matrix and 2. However, even reading the header you can never be sure what encoding a file is really using. Tag: unicode,encoding,utf-8,character-encoding,shift-jis I have a Japanese client and have generated a large flat file (1. Encoding -> Convert to Ansi will encode it in ANSI/UNICODE. UTF stands for Unicode Transformation Format. Because the entire file isnot loaded into RAM, the file can be of any length. The encoder supports Dolby® Digital audio encoding, and Closed Captioning (EIA-608 and EIA-708). That the addresses aren't importing but the names are tells me that Outlook didn't import the addresses because the field names in your CSV don't match with the field names in Outlook. A Comma-Separated Values (CSV) file is just a normal plain-text file, store data in column by column, and split it by a separator (e. csv(data, fileEncoding = 'GB2312'). You can choose whether to write the values as XML attributes or as text inside the record elements. Defaults to csv. Institute for Digital Research and Education. This is the column that contains the actual text. It’s just a table, which shows glyphs position to encoding system. Many of us have been written code segment for this also. csv format) --- > Export scores and grades to Microsoft Excel (in. Stored Routines Stored Procedures, etc, may need to be recreated if, for example, they were built with utf8 but need to be utf8mb4. the encoding is usually Western European (Windows). when exporting a Collect-Mobile file!. from:control panel > regional and languages > administrative > change system local. However, it might be an ISO-8859-1 file which happens to start with the characters . Good luck!!!. URL extractor for web pages and text. Text Encoding Converter is an easy-to-use application for Windows that can help you convert Encoding of multiple ansi/ utf-8/ unicode/HTML Encoding plain text documents to and from any Encoding, either interactively or in batch mode. UTF-8 allows encoding all Unicode characters, i. A Comma-Separated Values (CSV) file is just a normal plain-text file, store data in column by column, and split it by a separator (e. The '8' means it uses 8-bit blocks to represent a character. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Hi, i'm facing a problem when i'm trying to import a CSV file to uniCenta POS, I have a list of products in Arabic, and when i try to import it, i get a product with a wrong name, i have tried to save my CSV file using utf-8, unicode, unicode big endian, ANSI, Windows-1256, and many others without any success. Unicode: Unicode format (utf-16 little endian encoding, a. Write CSV Append to CSV To configure this property for the above activities, use the value from the Name field in the table below that corresponds with the character encoding type you want to use. The solution is to use data import: Save the exported file as a csv; Open Excel; Import the data using Data-->Import External Data --> Import Data. An encoding is the set of rules with which to convert something from one representation to another. csv) file with UTF-8 encoding. In the drop down box, select 'More Commands'. Joyce Scapicchio SQL Developer Team. The default behavour is to treat characters as a stream of 8-bit bytes, and not to interpret them other than to assume that each byte represents one character. quoting: optional constant from csv module. This works fine under Windows 7 and higher. GetEncoding("IBM037"); IBM037 should work for US English encoding. notepad to use the csv file. Encoding a Mifare Classic 4k card with a 5427 using non-default keys does not work due to known device limitations. com account. The practical benefit of this aim is that any user in any location can view Chinese scripts, English alphanumeric characters, or Russian and Arabic text - all within the same file and without having to manually futz with the encoding (code page) for each specific text. A few additions can make it even better. the encoding is usually Western European (Windows). Format of the data fields, specified as a character vector or a string of one or more conversion specifiers. txt -o arabic_utf8. Create your free Platform account to download our ready-to-use ActivePython or customize Python with any packages you require. Yet, if there is a need for any sort of non-ASCII character, there is some work ahead. from:control panel > regional and languages > administrative > change system local. I want to download (export) my form answers to. Stored Routines Stored Procedures, etc, may need to be recreated if, for example, they were built with utf8 but need to be utf8mb4. In particular,the separator might include a , or other character (printable or not), the data could include numeric values with decimal or thousands separator, the text could be in several different lanuages and/or locales and so on. How to Encode an Excel File to UTF-8 or UTF-16 Encoding your Excel files into a UTF format (UTF-8 or UTF-16) can help to ensure anything you upload into SurveyGizmo can be read and displayed properly. Click Save. when exporting a Collect-Mobile file!. Yao, Yuanming; Gill, Michele. That the addresses aren't importing but the names are tells me that Outlook didn't import the addresses because the field names in your CSV don't match with the field names in Outlook. I have an excel spreadsheet that has Arabic characters. I don't know what Arabic standard code page is. More info and example in the Python docs on reading and writing unicode data. This is very important when using the fileInput() or downloadHandler() functions in the shiny package. Example - Import CSV into Excel using Workbooks. Disclaimer The sample scripts are not supported under any Microsoft standard support program or service. Traditionally they take the form of a text file containing information separated by commas, hence the name. getpreferredencoding() call reports the encoding that Python will use by default for most operations that require an encoding (e. Convert excel file into CSV with font UTF - 8 and Unicode. For more information about the safe and secure usage of the electronic services, please click here. In this article, I will explain how to export GridView to Word, Excel, PDF and CSV formats. I am outputing html tables with the Content Type set to msexcel. How to import a. Support for a given encoding, even a Unicode encoding, does not necessarily imply that a user agent will correctly display the text. In Oracle 9i it's functionality has been extended to include binary reads/write operations. But, when there are special characters in file. When these settings are the same, Oracle Database assumes that the data being sent or received is encoded in the same character set as the database character set, so character set validation or conversion may. It has rich feature library that can be readily used for variety of data management tasks. So what is the problem with encodings? Say you want to read a CSV-file. Always Active. ANSI character set and equivalent Unicode and HTML characters. I am using a UNIX OS, where SAS 9. Unfortunately to do so, I had to install Open Office which lets you select the encoding type when saving an Excel spreadsheet as CSV. To get rid of the. Open the CSV file from Excel and verify the data. The best solution would be to encode your CSV in the default Excel encoding: windows-1252 (also called ANSI, which is basically a subset of ISO-8859-1). Windows-1257 encoding seems to be the right one for the Lithuanian language, but even after having changed the encoding of the. Text Class Example Shared Sub Main() Dim unicodeString As String = "This string contains the unicode character Pi (" & ChrW(&H03A0) & ")" ' Create two different encodings. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center. If I use "UTF-8" here and then import the resulting csv or txt file into QGIS selecting "Encoding "UTF-8" everything works fine. To get rid of the. ASCII Table and Description. In order to change the code page to UTF-8, run the following command: Chcp 65001. Oracle RDBMS supports only the UTF-8 encoding. In particular,the separator might include a , or other character (printable or not), the data could include numeric values with decimal or thousands separator, the text could be in several different lanuages and/or locales and so on. In the example below, I am going to show you how to scrap a web page in 20 lines of code, using…. Click on the Data menu bar option. SQL Server and UTF-8 Encoding (1) -True or False executed from sql server prompt with Arabic data, it is inserting data properly. To write Unicode to a file, the file needs to be opened with the correct encoding specified, such as encoding=utf-8. tsv is frequently required in our day to day action. However, I have the images in a single directory with a csv file specifying the image name and target classes. Most notably this enhances the interpretation of Unicode literals in the source code and makes it possible to write Unicode literals using e. In our case, handling school data from around the world,. csv at the end of the file name to change the file extension from ". Hello there, While exporting data from DataTable to CSV file 'characters' from Poland, France, Germany and Russia are being replaced with funny characters. However, other symbols can be used as delimiters as well. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center. png Only in current: images Common subdirectories: current/osp_evaluation and 2. The charset parameter. Character Description Encoded Byte � NULL (U+0000) 00 START OF HEADING (U+0001). UTF-8 vs UTF-16. To use Custom Labels and Messages Settings in Survey or Marketing Cloud Landing Pages, you need to upload a CSV (. Click on the filename and then click on the Import button. I take it that you want the word to be in a different column and the meaning in another. To specify these values yourself, construct an OutputStreamWriter on a FileOutputStream. So basically yeah its just a txt converted to a csv. We determine the texts variable in our. when the message is in English, the content type for body. The file I read, according to firefox, is of character encoding Windows-1250. Importing a CSV file into a table using sqlite3 tool. Duplicate check previously enabled and then disabled is not applied until server restart. Read in comma separated values (. No ads, nonsense or garbage, just a UTF16 encoder. U can get the detailed supported ecnoding with get-help export-csv -detailed U can get the detailed supported ecnoding with get-help export-csv -detailed. When Liquid XML Studio loads a document it uses the BOM (if present) to determine the encoding, and uses this to decode the document into an internal Unicode format. 3- and 4 this is a very good point, I scanned dozens of messages with/without attachments and isolated the problem: it seems that the problem rises whenever there is an in-line image embedded (even if it is the company logo in the in-line attached business card)!!!!! + Arabic Text. Unicode ' Convert the string into a byte array. When we open this csv file in MS-Excel 2013 then its not showing data properly. tsv is frequently required in our day to day action. To enable Eclipse to display Chinese or other non-English characters correctly, do following : 1. CSV imports don’t require your CSV file to have a specific structure. The file icon should be changed to MS Excel now. Nowadays all these different languages can be encoded in unicode UTF-8, but unfortunately all the files from years ago still exist, and some stubborn countries still use old text encodings. Docparser helps thousands of businesses of all sizes around the globe. We are going to walkthrough a specific example of what you can do with the Power BI PowerShell modules. Writing Arabic and other text to CSV For example you could use the pandas. Well, I didn't need that as I already explained in a previous comment. Comma is the field delimiter. How to export list to csv using PowerShell. It uses Unicode strings implemented as wchar_t* strings (LPWSTR). Dim ascii As Encoding = Encoding. It took some time to finally come to the conclusion that the manipulation of File 's and Tempfile 's in Rails were not as succinct as you would expect. cities – including county, state, population, zip codes, coordinates and more. I don't know what Arabic standard code page is. You can specify your own delimiter ("," or ";" or whatever). csv example, and for all GNS Country files, the UNIQUE ID field is "UFI" or Unique Feature ID. In addition to embedded metadata, CSV data may also be embedded within HTML using a script element. NET web applications. ## Here are some examples so that I can remember how to do things because ## most of the online "help" is unhelpful. August 30, 2014, 4:49am #1. A slightly modified dynamic time warping algorithm is used to measure similarities between words. Always Active. Docparser helps thousands of businesses of all sizes around the globe. xls) format, it seems to be very reliable. ) and an equivalence table with a set of characters and octet values for each of these characters. Developers from all over the world come together to share knowledge, source code, and tutorials for free to help their fellow programmers - Professional Developers, Hobbyists and Students alike. 6million entries, with no null entries, and importantly for the “sentiment” column, even though the dataset description mentioned neutral class, the training set has no neutral class. Comma-Separated Values. What are some ideas for handling the UTF-8 file. On the other hand, if you SFDC export as UTF-8 Excel. In this article I will demonstrate how to use the UTL_FILE package to perform a simple data extract to a CSV file. @Followup from my first post: Thank you, i forgot about the ALL_TABLES and ALL_COLUMS ecc. Heidi is a pure Unicode tool, and Excel offers to select the file encoding when you use the data importer. As you work with large scale SQL Server Integration Services ETL processes and sequences, you are bound to have to work with UTF-8 encoded text files. The RStudio source editor can read and write files using any character encoding that is available on your system:. So, encoding is used number 1 or 0 to represent characters. 28 (May 2019) are displayed in red print. Example - Import CSV into Excel using Workbooks. csv file (in notepad) open office; As far as I can see the plugin has done it’s job correctly. Excel does not to open up CSV files in UTF-8 encoding by default. Read a CSV (line-by-line) in PythonThe following code reads from a CSV line-by-line (streaming). Excel is not capable to process UTF-8 characters correctly when CSV is opened directly in Excel. This advanced XML editor provides the most intuitive tools for XML editing, authoring, and development. It took some time to finally come to the conclusion that the manipulation of File 's and Tempfile 's in Rails were not as succinct as you would expect. In the previous part I’ve explained the Arabic dynamic distribution groups, in this part we will discuss the reporting. Similarly, when writing a CSV file with the GB2312 encoding (a commonly used encoding for Simplified Chinese), you can use write. The link I posted demonstrates that and how it won't worjk in PowerShell V2. It’s a free set of tools for dealing with CSV files on Linux. Traditionally they take the form of a text file containing information separated by commas, hence the name. Can you suggest if there is a way of setting UTF-8 encoding to a FileWriter & explain me what the docs ask me to do here - The constructors of this class assume that the default character encoding and the default byte-buffer size are acceptable. Simplest steps are Unload data into csv files, create tables in greenplum database corresponding to Oracle, Create external table, start gpfdist pointing to external table location, Load data into greenplum. A few additions can make it even better. csv file in notepad then select File > Save As. Changes to the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data that resulted from Update No. When Liquid XML Studio loads a document it uses the BOM (if present) to determine the encoding, and uses this to decode the document into an internal Unicode format. In step 2 of a CSV import, you can specify an alternative delimiter if you aren’t using a comma. CSV to JSON Converter is used to convert CSV data or file into JSON format. I have looked everywhere on the web for a solution to this problem. 0/osp_glossary Common subdirectories: current/osp_matrix and 2. Currently, many browsers do not send a request encoding qualifier with the Content-Type header. Character encoding (aka code page) Character encoding is a name ("utf-8", "iso-8859-1", etc. Most notably this enhances the interpretation of Unicode literals in the source code and makes it possible to write Unicode literals using e. Cloudwords respects the privacy and sensitivity of any content an organization stores with us, and therefore we take great pains to ensure the security of your data. ASCII cannot be used for Chinese characters (漢字), Arabic alphabet (أبجدية عربية‎), Russian alphabet (русский алфавит), etc. Without proper handling, UTF-8 / Unicode characters can cause havoc with your SSIS load tasks. How do I use flow from directory directly from csv files named train. CSV looks like a simple portable format from the outside, but its looks are deceiving. the problem is not the encoding of the. There are faster ways, like exporting as csv ( comma delimited ) and then, opening that csv with Notepad++ ( free ), then Encoding > Convert to UTF8. Generating CSV Files. and then selecting an encoding from the "File Encoding" popup list. Tabula was designed by Jason Das. Other terms which deserve clarification in this context: character set, charset The set of characters that can be encoded. You can even use exotic scripts that don't have legacy Windows code pages, or built-in support from Windows. You may also paste your data. UTF-8 vs UTF-16. UTF stands for Unicode Transformation Format. A filter consists of a list of component:value pairs separated by a pipe (|). I take it that you want the word to be in a different column and the meaning in another. I am working to create a tool using c# to convert this batch to excel and it worked, but I couldn't make the excel coding utf-8 to show the arabic letters properly. cPickle (Python 2. Unicode string is designed to store text data. NET doesn't do any encoding or content type fixup on my behalf. On Windows there is no such luck. "The ASCII encoding encompasses a character set of 128 characters. hiding) some rows. Click on the From Text icon. CSV grep is incredibly useful. 3- and 4 this is a very good point, I scanned dozens of messages with/without attachments and isolated the problem: it seems that the problem rises whenever there is an in-line image embedded (even if it is the company logo in the in-line attached business card)!!!!! + Arabic Text. csv" where XXX is the language. By default, the Excel workbooks are saved as XLSX file in Excel 2007 or later versions. In this representation, the string "Python" would look like this:. Thanks, this makes things clearer! However, as I understand it, I have no option to fix it, without manipulating each CSV I deal with. You can choose whether to write the values as XML attributes or as text inside the record elements. However, if you see unexpected or strange/random symbols or characters in the left or right panel, then first click "Advanced" and then click the "Text encoding" dropdown menu to see a range of encodings you can try out. "The ASCII encoding encompasses a character set of 128 characters. Unfortunately, it is not always. The '8' means it uses 8-bit blocks to represent a character. A much simpler way to have your application share data is by reading and writing Comma-Separated Values (CSV) files. We ran into an interesting MySQL character encoding issue at Crowd Favorite today while working to upgrade and launch a new client site. Input the correct encoding after you select the CSV file to upload. re: load arabic data Gaz in Oz Sep 18, 2017 2:04 PM ( in response to sahar. 3- Read the file in excel by going to Data -> import. 6- Used chat support, the guy is clueless. Click on the Data menu bar option. Excel (both 2002 and 2007) doesn't show up letters correctly. Convert excel file into CSV with font UTF - 8 and Unicode. csv I have a batch of auto generated CSV files that contain arabic letters with Ansi coded format. If you open the CSV file Excel has created with a tool like Notepad++, you will see the character encoding is already broken, since cp-1252 does not support all unicode characters. To add location data from a spreadsheet into Google Earth, import the latitude and longitude info. Checked in my sql db the the arabic text is saving correctly, attaching the document for your reference. I tried to change encoding to Unicode(UTF-8) it didn't help. Write() for the first time.